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In Protestant England, the word "communism" was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.
Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was published, that "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not".
The socialist calculation debate discusses the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system.
The first "self-conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s.
By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organization of production and ownership in cooperatives.
The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", which had previously been used as synonyms.
The term "communism" also fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s.
An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).