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Thus, a complete injury to the cervical spine will result in quadriplegia, while an incomplete injury to the cervical spine will result in quadriparesis.

Similarly, a complete lesion in the thoracic or lumbar spine will produce paraplegia, whereas an incomplete lesion at these levels will produce paraparesis.

In addition to enhancement of walking abilities in SCI patients, other clinical applications of FES include diaphragmatic/phrenic pacing, and spasticity control.

Functional electrical stimulation has had some success in improving ventilatory function in adult patients with SCI (Glenn et al, 1984; Carter et al, 1987; Glenn et al, 1988).

The cell bodies of LMN are located in the central gray matter throughout the entire length of the spinal column, and their axons extend out via the spinal nerve roots and peripheral nerve branches to innervate skeletal muscles throughout the body.

Spinal cord injury can result in damage to upper motor neurons (UMN), lower motor neurons (LMN), or a combination of both.

The cell bodies of UMN originate from the primary motor area of the cerebral cortex and the brain stem, with their axons descending downward and terminating at each segmental level throughout the entire length of the spinal column to synapse with LMN that arise in the spinal cord and connect to a muscle or organ.

In addition, these stationary exercise devices are considered experimental and investigational to prevent or reduce muscle atrophy in upper and lower extremities in individuals with hemiplegia or quadriplegia and for all other indications.

Aetna considers form-fitting conductive garments experimental and investigational for all other indications because its effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established.

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