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They have been introduced in the past into enterprise systems to improve query response times in view of slow, disk-based database systems, which made an on-the-fly calculation prohibitively expensive.In-memory technology now breaks down the performance barrier so that SAP Simple Finance removes all kinds of redundancy.Hence, in the spirit of simplification, getting rid of redundancy is a key paradigm of SAP Simple Finance.We begin our exploration of the paradigms underlying the SAP Simple Finance model by looking at the removal of redundancy in this chapter.In 1970, Edgar Codd introduced the fundamental relational model that underlies many of today's database systems.In order to reduce redundancy, normalization techniques such as normal forms are an integral part of the relational model. We can distinguish four different kinds of redundancy within a database system, depending on the relationship of redundant data to the original data: Materialized view A materialized view stores a subset of data from one or several tables as duplicate copies in a second new, typically smaller table.This chapter covers the removal of redundancy with regard to the first two categories: materialized views and materialized aggregates.(We'll see these categories come up again later in the book.

None of these instances of redundancy is necessary from a functional point of view.

A materialized aggregate does not contain one-to-one duplicates, but nevertheless, the data is redundant, because it can be derived from the original data at any time by applying the same calculation on the fly.

Duplicated data due to overlap Data may be duplicated if related information is stored in separate locations.

It materializes the result of a database view, which is a stored database query, in order to provide direct access to the result.

As such, the materialized view can be compared to an index into the base table. Materialized aggregate If the query of a materialized view aggregates tuples from the base table(s), then we speak of materialized aggregates as a special case.

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